Finally, in the late 900s, the city of Basra was entirely relocated, with the old site being abandoned and a new one developing on the banks of the Shatt al-Arab, where it has remained ever since.[9]. The first architecturally significant mosque in Islam was constructed there in 665. [20][c] This was the first time Basra had come under Safavid suzerainty. 851-855, available online at (accessed on 30 December 2012). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Basra, Iraq. The Tamīm tribe, which had dominated Basra and the countryside around it during the city’s early days, had been fairly well controlled by the Omayyad caliphs through their ex­tensive connections with Arab tribal society; but the Tamīm’s successors to local preeminence, such as the Ḵafāja tribe in the 5th/11th and 6th/12th centuries and the Montafeq tribe (11th-14th/17th-20th centuries), proved much more difficult to contain. In particular, the old links between Basra and its former administrative dependencies in Iran were deci­sively broken under the ʿAbbasids, as Iranians and Arabs living in Iran now looked to Baghdad (or Sāmarrā) as the relevant political center. At various times during the Omayyad period, the gover­norship of Basra was combined with that of its sister city Kūfa in central Iraq (which, like Basra, had large areas of Iran as administrative dependencies) in the hands of one governor, such as ʿAbd-al-Malek’s powerful vice­roy, Ḥajjāj b. Yūsof. Basra International Hotel (formally known as Basra Sheraton Hotel) is located on the Corniche street. After the Gulf War, which the US called Operation Desert Storm, in 1991, a rebellion struck Basra. It is the Bassorah of the Arabian Nights and Sinbad. In 1550, the local Kingdom of Basra and tribal rulers trusted the Portuguese against the Ottomans, from then on the Portuguese threatened Basra several times to conquer it. This system consists of a regular pattern of two-meter-high ridges in straight lines, separated by old canal beds. The Fun City of Basra, which is now called Basra Land, is one of the oldest theme-park entertainment cities in the south of the country, and the largest involving a large number of games giants. Hanna-Sheikh Bazaar is an old market; it was established by the powerful and famous Hanna-Sheikh family. Basra was founded as a military encampment by the second caliph, ʿUmar I, in 638 ce about 8 miles (13 km) from the modern town of Al-Zubayr, Iraq. They held a two-day strike in August 2003, and formed the nucleus of the independent General Union of Oil Employees (GUOE) in June 2004. "[5], The city was founded at the beginning of the Islamic era in 636 and began as a garrison encampment for Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of the Rashid Caliph Umar. The tenth century also saw outbreaks of violence in Basra between the city’s Sunni population and its Shiʿite minority. Sinbad Island is located in the centre of Shatt Al-Arab, near the Miinaalmakl, and extends above the bridge Khaled and is a tourist landmark. This resulted in tighter (but still, nominal) Ottoman control over Basra.[19][22]. amṣār) for the Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of the early caliphs. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Bahamas Air Sea Rescue Association (BASRA) is located on the site of the old Pan American seaplane ramp. The Latin Church is located on the 14th of July Street. collecting: colonial bombay, basra, baghdad and the enlightenment museum - volume 30 Madelung, Wilferd. By 1977, the population had risen to a peak population of some 1.5 million. The Shatt-Al-Arab and Basra waterways define the eastern and western borders of Basra, respectively. "[9], Nevertheless, Basra overcame these natural disadvantages and rapidly grew into the second-largest city in Iraq, if not the entire Islamic world. The modern city of Basra is an agglomeration of three small towns, Basra, Al-ʿAshār, and Al-Maʿqil, and several small villages. Although Zanj slaves from Africa were put to work on these construction projects, most of the labor was done by free men working for wages. In 1290[14] fighting erupted at the Persian Gulf port of Basra among the Genoese, between the Guelph and the Ghibelline factions. The only five star hotel in the city, it is notable for its. The ridges are extremely saline, with salt deposits up to 20 centimeters thick, and are completely barren. The town was thereby drawn into the power struggles within the Buyid dynasty itself. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Basra, capital of Al-Baṣrah governorate, Iraq. Political groups centered in Basra were reported to have close links with political parties already in power in the Iraqi government, despite opposition from Iraqi Sunnis and the more secular Kurds. In Arabic, the word baṣrah means "the overwatcher," which may have been an allusion to the city's origin as an Arab military base against the Sassanids. Routledge. Basra was taken by the Turks in 1668. It was damaged during the war, and has been rebuilt. The population declined during the Iran–Iraq War, being under 900,000 in the late 1980s, possibly reaching a low point of just over 400,000 during the worst of the war. Long considered a harbinger of bad luck, Friday the 13th has inspired countless superstitions—as well as a late 19th-century secret society, an … Its economy is largely dependent on the oil industry. The former canal beds are less salty and can support a small population of salt-resistant plants.