Schwartz, D.F. B.S. Ancient techniques have been further modified and refined to maximize productivity. Ther. Dunford (Ed. [49] Applications of Biotechnology in Food Processing. Hence, here we review the state-of-the-art knowledge about the characteristics of the nasal and, in particular, the olfactory mucosa needed for a rational design of intranasal formulations and dosage forms. The authenticity of the purified recombinant protein was confirmed via western blotting using indigenously developed HRP-II specific monoclonal antibodies and known positive human clinical sera samples. Conjugates were successfully produced in thePichia pastorismethylotrophic yeast expression system. Khan, M. Bibi, S. Yousuf, I.H. However, key challenges still remain to be addressed. R. Lahijani, G. Hulley, G. Soriano, N.A. However, fermentation is also used as a technology for industrial production of a great variety of useful substances. [36] Although an enormous amount of information L.A. Palomares, S. Estrada-Mondaca, O.T. Fermentation Technology is the longest-run course in the MIT Professional Education catalog. 64 (1999) 61-73. Another application of the fermentation process is in the treatment of wastewater. van Gulik, L.A. van der Wielen, Fumaric acid production by fermentation, Appl. Damasceno, I. Pla, H.J. ""#$%&'()#$*)*$+*,-#./#01$(#/2#3/4(*4()#/2#('%)#010*$#516#7*#$*0$/,83*,#/$#($14)5%((*,#%4#146#2/$5#/$#76#146#5*14)#9%('/8(#('*#9$%((*4#0*$5%))%/4#/2#::;<, 999-((0-4*(-#=>? Secondary metabolites range from several antibiotics to peptides, enzymes and growth factors (Balakrishnan and Pandey, 1996; Machado et al.,.2004; Robinson et al., 2001). Hall, R.A. Moreau, A. Nuñez, E.D. G.A. It deals with screening, improvement, management and exploitation of microorganisms for production. Chan, N.R. This paper surveys the current, Probiotics have seen widespread use for a variety of gastrointestinal problems, especially in two common disorders: irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Here effluent of first fermentor acts as in-fluent for next fermentor. Lehninger, D.L. Fermentation, a process traditionally known for the anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast, now refers to an industrial process of manufacturing a wide variety of metabolites and biomaterials by using microorganisms or mammalian cells in a controlled culture environment. 3 (2012) 480-486. B.H. Mohammad A. Jafar Mazumder and Amir Al-Ahmed, These results would be very useful for maximizing productivity of avermectin B1a in an up-scaled fermentation. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. M.J. Waites, Industrial microbiology, Blackwell Science, Osney Mead, Oxford ; Malden, MA, (2001). M.R. USA, 101 (2004). Microbiol. [8] Fermentation is a preferred method for production of many clinical compounds due to the ease in which biochemically controlled and standardized engineering conditions can be met, offering an optimal method for the production of chitosan for medical applications. Clin. Results showed that B1a concentration was increased by 48.6% through optimization of nitrogen, carbon sources as well as supplement of 0.2 mM Co2+. Microbiol. Lett. INTRODUCTION Fermentation is the technique of biological conversion of complex substrates into simple compounds by various microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.