Teubal cites Paragraph 146 of Hammurabi’s Code, an ancient Mesopotamian legal code: If a man has married a priestess [of a certain rank] and she has given a slave girl to her husband and she bears sons, if (thereafter) that slave girl goes about making herself equal to her mistress, because she had borne sons, her mistress may not sell her; she may put the mark of a slave on her and count her with the slave girls. Frymer-Kensky and Teubal both use historical evidence from the ancient Near East to come to different conclusions regarding the Sarah-Hagar story. Abraham is reluctant to do so, but God tells him: “Whatever Sarah tells you to do, listen to her” (Genesis 21:12), and he agrees and sends Hagar and her son away. The Genesis narratives thus form a bridge between the matriarchal pre-historic world and the patriarchal historic world. https://www.bible.com/bible/8/GEN.21.2.AMPC, All About Love - Relating with Women of the Bible – Part 2, Promised Of God: Traveling With Unmet Expectations, The Essential 100® Bible Challenge–2–Abraham, Isaac And Jacob, Every Nation 2019 Prayer, Fasting, and Consecration, The Louder Song: Listening for Hope in the Midst of Pain, Anxiety, Grief, Doubt, and Lament, Prayer and God’s Promises for the Nations, Inconceivable Redemption: God's Presence In Miscarriage And Infertility, The Aetherlight Episode 1 Resistance Plan, Emmanuel: God With Us, an Advent Devotional, Advent Journey - Following the Seed From Eden to Bethlehem. He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he refreshes my soul. Why does the Bible portray women in such a positive light? Genesis 21:2 - So Sarah conceived and bore a son to Abraham in his old age, at the appointed time of which God had spoken to him. Worship of goddesses did not lessen the actual social subordination of women. For Sarah became pregnant and bore Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time God had told him. The fact that Genesis consists of a series of family stories (including several genealogies) accounts for the remarkable concentration of female figures. Hagar comes across a spring, where an angel of God appears to her. Teubal argues that Sarah is asserting her traditional role as Mesopotamian priestess, while Frymer-Kensky argues that both Sarah and Hagar serve as paradigms for Israel: one exercising great influence despite her secondary social status, the other beginning a journey to redemption. Psalm 23:1-4. Five books of story, law, and poetry divided into 54 weekly portions. Women who governed include Deborah (Judges 4:4), the Queen of Sheba (1Kings 10:1 - 13) and Queen Candace (Acts 8:27). Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers, OT Law: Genesis 16:4 He went in to Hagar and she (Gen. Ge Gn) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools. Sarah brings this problem to Abraham, and Abraham, rather than deciding himself what to do, lets Sarah choose how to deal with Hagar, saying: “Here, your slave-woman is in your hands. Biblical Sarah, Abraham’s wife and the matriarch of the Jewish people, is a strong and independent character. Home. Frymer-Kensky and Teubal’s differing interpretations of the Sarah-Hagar story provide two ways to understand the strong and independent women of the Bible in the context of the patriarchal world in which they lived. Sarah abuses Hagar, and Hagar flees. 1. Sarah, she explains, was a priestess in Mesopotamia, before she chose to leave her family and homeland behind and journey with Abraham to Canaan. Savina J. Teubal, in Sarah the Priestess, and Tikva Frymer-Kensky, in Reading the Women of the Bible, both draw on historical evidence from the ancient Near East in order to address this question, but come to different conclusions. Do to her what is good in your eyes” (Genesis 16:6). When she cannot have children, Sarah takes the initiative and gives her maid-servant, Hagar, to Abraham so that he can have children through Hagar on Sarah’s behalf. Frymer-Kensky provides a different theory to explain Sarah’s behavior. She explains that Sarah gives Hagar to Abraham in keeping with ancient Near Eastern tradition.