[citation needed]. The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990. The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic (about 6 million speakers[430]), Najdi Arabic (about 8 million speakers[431]), and Gulf Arabic (about 0.2 million speakers[432]). [86] Ufsurid rule was weakened after Persian rulers of Hormuz captured Bahrain and Qatif in 1320. km, Saudi Arabia is the largest sovereign country of Arabia. Turkish officials are highly skeptical of Khashoggi being murdered inside the consulate; this has strained the already suffering Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations. (The CIA Factbook estimated that as of 2013[update] foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia made up about 21% of the population. [301] American politicians and media accused the Saudi government of supporting terrorism and tolerating a jihadist culture. Oil provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and substantial political leverage internationally. [484]), Until 2016, the kingdom used the lunar Islamic calendar, not the international Gregorian calendar,[485] but in 2016 the kingdom announced its switch to the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. [88][89] The Jabrids took control of the region after overthrowing the Jarwanids in the 15th century and clashed with Hormuz for more than two decades over the region for its economic revenues, until finally agreeing to pay tribute in 1507. Arab dynasties originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia founded the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750), Abbasid (750–1517) and Fatimid (909–1171) caliphates as well as numerous other dynasties in Asia, Africa and Europe.[17][18][19][20][21]. [412], The population of Saudi Arabia as of July 2013 is estimated to be 26.9 million, including between 5.5 million[3] and 10 million non-nationalized immigrants,[381][415] though the Saudi population has long proved difficult to accurately estimate due to Saudi leaders' historical tendency to inflate census results. Coffee, served in the Arabic style, is the traditional beverage but tea and various fruit juices are popular as well. [383], In the 1990s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth. There are six elements inscribed on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list:[516] Al-Qatt Al-Asiri, female traditional interior wall decoration in Asir; Almezmar, drumming and dancing with sticks; Falconry, a living human heritage; Arabic coffee, a symbol of generosity; Majlis, a cultural and social space; Alardah Alnajdiyah, dance, drumming and poetry in Saudi Arabia. However, the superstar players Lacey Evans and Natalya were required to cover their arms and legs by wearing bodysuits during the fight, instead of the more revealing gear that they would normally wear. "[551], Women face discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women in family and inheritance law. [375][376] It has the third highest total estimated value of natural resources, valued at US$34.4 trillion in 2016. However, experts such as Joan Oates had the opportunity to see the Ubaid period sherds in eastern Arabia and consequently conclude that the sherds dates to the last two phases of Ubaid period (period three and four), while handful examples could be classified roughly as either Ubaid 3 or Ubaid 2. Sakaka dates back more than 4,000 years. Cities of Saudi Arabia on maps. [285] The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the Saudi-led intervention and blockade of the rebel-held area. [94][95] These changes contributed to later uncertainties, such as the dispute with Transjordan over the inclusion of the sanjak of Ma'an, including the cities of Ma'an and Aqaba.