92, 829–839. Are They Mutually Exclusive? Our previous Domino Blog on the Curse of Dimensionality, describes weird behaviors that emerge in data when P >> N: Each of these behaviors wreak havoc on statistical analyses. Appita 42, 295–300. ANOVA, PCA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient analyses were performed using XLSTAT 2017 software (Addinsoft, Paris, France). They have been documented and, where possible, removed and analyzed by SEM-EDS. Draft genome sequence of Pannonibacter phragmitetus strain CGMCC9175, a halotolerant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium. 52, 338–347. A. glaucus has been detected in cultural assets made of wooden (Sterflinger et al., 2018b) and canvas support (Piñar et al., 2020a), but its isolation and undistinguishable morphological identification were difficult in the past (Hubka et al., 2013). 17, 333–351. PLoS One 15:e0221742. Genomics. Molecular and microscopical investigation of the microflora inhabiting a deteriorated Italian manuscript dated from the thirteenth century. Many of the studies using the latter strategy have been collected and summarized in the review of Marvasi et al. The microbiomes derived from the drawings showed a high biodiversity, with the exception of drawing L4, whose microbiome was heavily contaminated with human sequences, this contamination being perhaps due to its greater handling. Microbiol. This could even yield clues to understanding bacteria like E. coli that don’t just remain in the human gut but circulate through the environment, humans and other animals. For obvious reasons of relevance, fragility and uniqueness of the objects studied, the microscopic analysis of the drawings was mainly aimed at acquiring photographic documentation using non-invasive techniques, using above all a stereoscopic microscope with fiber optic illumination. In the light of the new research techniques and their resolving power, some considerations on the impact that cleaning and consolidation techniques may have on the information content of ancient materials are now really urgent. The revenge of time: fungal deterioration of cultural heritage with particular reference to books, paper and parchment. MSe and KS conceived and contributed to the design of the study and supervised the project. Genome Announc. J. Alternaria, with the only detected species A. alternata was present in L3 and L5. The DNA was directly extracted from the membranes collected from each drawing and pooled, as explained in the materials and methods section. Ruggiero, D. (2020). Rep. 7, 849–859. To summarize our data, the bacterial species detected in this study can be roughly grouped according to their origin on the paper-support of the drawings. The species C. higginsianum was dominant in L7–L8 while C. orchidophilum was dominant in L2. 18, 1296–1305. This species causes human infections acquired through the respiratory tract or skin (Torres et al., 2000). Notable is the identified crucial importance of the native microbiome for the generation of offspring, consequently affecting life cycle decisions. Since the gene sets within bacteria are large (they have to code for all the activities of the bacteria), there are thousands of bacterial genes in the microbiome that make the Q table very large and the analysis Large P Small N. It is therefore important to consider focused analyses on subsets of genes. SEM imaging and EDS analysis of the membranes used for sampling the airborne material deposited on the drawings between the fibers and destined to outline their genetic “pedigree,” showed the effectiveness of the suction system which, without contact with the drawing, made it possible to recover significant micro-objects including fungal spores. Plant. The researcher should confirm these results in follow-up designed experiments. Natl. One-way analysis of the variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significance of the differences was tested at 95% confidence. Photogr. Bias: Breaking the Chain that Holds Us Back, The Machine Learning Reproducibility Crisis, Domino Honored to Be Named Visionary in Gartner Magic Quadrant, 0.05 is an Arbitrary Cut Off: “Turning Fails into Wins”, Racial Bias in Policing: An Analysis of Illinois Traffic Stop Data, Intel’s Python Distribution is Smoking Fast, and Now it’s in Domino, Reproducible Machine Learning with Jupyter and Quilt, Summertime Analytics: Predicting E. Coli and West Nile Virus, Using Bayesian Methods to Clean Up Human Labels, Reproducible Dashboards and Other Great Things to do with Jupyter, Taking the Course: Practical Deep Learning for Coders, Best Practices for Managing Data Science at Scale, Advice for Aspiring Chief Data Scientists: The People You Need, Stakeholder-Driven Data Science at Warby Parker, Advice for Aspiring Chief Data Scientists: The Problems You Solve, Advice for Aspiring Chief Data Scientists: The Mindset You Need to Have, Answering Questions About Model Delivery on AWS at Strata, What Your CIO Needs to Know about Data Science, Data for Good’s Inaugural Meetup: Peter Bull of DrivenData, Domino for Good: Collaboration, Reproducibility, and Openness, in the Service of Societal Benefit. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00142-06, Alkhatib, N. J., Younis, M. H., Alobaidi, A. S., and Shaath, N. M. (2017). Articles. Biodegr. However, so far, no extensive studies have been conducted to elucidate the total microbiome (bacteria vs. fungi) of these valuable objects. (2017). Relative abundance of eukaryotes, bacteria, archaea, and viruses in the microbiomes of all seven investigated drawings. M. haemophilum is an emerging pathogen associated most commonly with skin infections (Tufariello et al., 2015). Concerning the first point, the sampling of visibly biodeteriorated paper often lead to the identification of fungi actively growing and using either cellulose or other compounds. Members of the order Lactobacillales showed to be widely represented in almost all drawings, with the genera Streptococcus (in drawings L3–L6), Lactobacillus (in drawings L5 and L6), Lactococcus (in L4, L6, and L7) and Leuconostoc (solely in L6). In the second analysis a subset of the genes from gut microbioal taxa were selected to test if gene copy number was associated with conversion from insulin sensitivity (good outcome) to resistance (bad outcome). Relative abundance of the eukaryotic communities of all seven investigated drawings at the phylum level. Finally, we would like to make a general discussion about the conservation over the centuries of these unique and very fragile objects, in terms of the need to remove insect excrements, dust and the remains of fungi and bacteria, since they are all substances rich in nitrogen, and chemically reactive compounds, capable of oxidizing and degrading the paper fibers. The microbial community dwelling on a biodeteriorated 16th century painting. Figure 2. A. Kilby (Boston, MA: Springer). Moreover, it appeared that Leonardo followed the recipe described by Cennini and Powell Herringham (1899), which consisted in a preparatory layer made with powdered calcinated chicken bones, white lead, indigo from the plant Indigofera tinctoria mixed with animal gelatin and distributed with a brush on the paper support. Bučková, M., Puškárová, A., Sclocchi, M. C., Bicchieri, M., Colaizzi, P., Pinzari, F., et al. One example is the Nanopore sequencing technology, which involves the use of protein nanopores embedded in a polymer membrane. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus salivarius and closely related Lactobacillus species. doi: 10.1186/s12934-016-0507-6. However, some similarities were observed that could be influenced by the geographical location of the drawings. Seven emblematic drawings from Leonardo da Vinci were selected for the analysis of their microbiomes (Figure 1). Microbiol. Larger studies need to verify the preliminary findings, and then human trials can begin. Biosci. 69, 1001–1021. Sci. The EDS spectra corresponding to the labeled particles are reported in the plot below. Mar. In contrast, members of the Betaproteobacteria class were shown to be more abundant in drawings L5–L8 (Figure 4B) with Ralstonia as the dominant genus in all drawings (∼3–40% of total reads) (Figure 6).