[192], After the general destruction wrought by Genghis Khan, the Church of the East fared no worse under the Mongols of the Ilkhanate than under the Arabs, but at the end of the 14th century Timur brought disaster on it,[193] exterminating it in many regions,[194] so that it survived only in the Kurdistan mountains and in India.[195]. For a time, the Assyrians fought successfully against overwhelming numbers, scoring a number of victories against the Ottomans and Kurds, and also hostile Arab and Iranian groups. [142][143], In recent years, Assyrians in northern Iraq and northeast Syria have become the target of attacks amounting to genocide by Islamist militants like ISIL and Nusra Front. [57] The ambitious Assyrian king went further still, attacking and conquering Babylonia, and imposing a puppet ruler loyal to himself upon its throne. Frye, R.N. Ashur-bel-nisheshu (1417–1409 BC) seems to have been independent of Mitannian influence, as evidenced by his signing a mutually beneficial treaty with Karaindash, the Kassite king of Babylonia in the late 15th century. [37] The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian) population.[29][30]. [202], In 1933, the seat of the patriarchate of the Syriac Orthodox Church was moved from the "Saffron Monastery" (Mor Hananyo Monastery) of Tur Abdin, 4 kilometres north of Mardin, Turkey to Homs, Syria and in 1959 to Bab Tuma (literally meaning "Thomas Gate"), Damascus, capital of Syria; but the Patriarch actually resides at the Mar Aphrem Monastery in Maarat Saidnaya, about 25 kilometres north of Damascus. "The Assyrian King List from Khorsabad,". Shamshi-Adad II (1585–1580 BC), Ishme-Dagan II (1579–1562 BC) and Shamshi-Adad III (1562–1548 BC) seem also to have had peaceful tenures, although few records have thus far been discovered about their reigns. Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (1400–1393 BC) also received a tribute of gold and diplomatic overtures from Egypt, probably in an attempt to gain Assyrian military support against Egypt's Mitannian and Hittite rivals in the region. Documents and letters illustrate the importance of the latter to Assyrian society. [29] The influence of Sumerian (a language isolate) on Akkadian, and vice versa, is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. The rebellion centered around Tyareh was eventually quashed by Cyrus the Great. The separate patriarchates at one stage grew to four, but were reduced in 1830 to two: the now more numerous Chaldean Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East. Ashur-rim-nisheshu (1408–1401 BC) also undertook building work, strengthening the city walls of the capital. "Assyria" can also refer to the geographic region or heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were (and still are) centered. Despite the loss of almost all of its major cities, and in the face of overwhelming odds, Assyrian resistance continued under Ashur-uballit II (612–609 BC), who fought his way out of Nineveh and coalesced Assyrian forces around Harran which finally fell in 609 BC. Ed. Assyria is often noted for its brutality and cruelty during this period, although Assyrian harshness was reserved solely for those who took up arms against the Assyrian king, and none of the Assyrian kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire or preceding Middle Assyrian Empire conducted genocides, massacres or ethnic cleansings against civilian populations, non-combatant men, or women and children.[84][85]. Professional writers in all subject areas are available and will meet your assignment deadline. The empire shrank significantly, and by 1020 BC Assyria appears to have controlled only areas close to Assyria itself, essential to keeping trade routes open in eastern Aramea, South Eastern Asia Minor, central Mesopotamia and north western Iran. E. Bilgic and S Bayram, Ankara Kultepe Tabletleri II, Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, 1995. This was to lead to both the Assyrians from Northern Mesopotamia and the Arameans and Phoenicians from the Levant being collectively dubbed Syrians (and later also Syriacs) in Greco-Roman and later European culture, regardless of ethnicity, history or geography. The Elamites managed to actually take the Assyrian city of Arrapha (modern Kirkuk), before being finally defeated and driven from the Assyrian empire. A century later, an attempt by the school's director to include influences other than that of Theodore alone[179] His initiative was opposed by Babai the Great (551–628), whose exposition of the theology of Theodore of Mopsuestia became the official teaching of the Church of the East. Sulaqa therefore went to Rome to be made a patriarch, entered into communion with the Catholic Church and was appointed "Patriarch of Mosul in Eastern Syria"[110] or "Patriarch of the Chaldean church of Mosul"[111] by Pope Julius III in 1553. In the mid-14th century the Muslim Turkish ruler Tamurlane conducted a religiously motivated massacre of the indigenous Christians, and entirely destroyed the vast Church of the East structure established throughout the Far East outside what had been the Sasanid Empire, with the exception of the St Thomas Christians of the Malabar Coast in India, who numbered 4.2 million in the 2011 census of Kerala. He made a new capital city named Dur Sharrukin. Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "The Assyrian Empire: Culture, Rise & Fall," in. Outside Assyria, slave states were taken over and made into Assyrian provinces. [128] The Adana massacre of 1909 largely aimed at Armenian Christians also accounted for the murder of some 1,500 Assyrians.[129]. The patriarchate of Timothy I (780–823) was a high point of the Church's expansion. J. M. Munn-Rankin (1975). Internal disagreements marked the end of Shalmaneser’s reign, and many of his conquests were lost. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, from 605 BC through to the late seventh century AD, people referred to the area variously as Achaemenid Assyria, Atouria, Ator, Athor, and sometimes as Syria - which etymologically derives from Assyria.